Andrew Jackson (March 4, 1829 - March 4, 1837)
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 - June 8, 1845) was the 7th President of the United States. He was also military governor of Florida (1821), commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), and the eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy. He was a polarizing figure who dominated American politics in the 1820s and 1830s. His political ambition combined with the masses of people shaped the modern Democratic Party. Nicknamed "Old Hickory" because he was renowned for his toughness, Jackson was the first President primarily associated with the frontier, as he based his career in Tennessee. The Tennessee legislature nominated Jackson for President in 1822. It also elected him U.S. Senator again.
By 1824, the Democratic-Republican Party had become the only functioning party. Its Presidential candidates had been chosen by an informal Congressional nominating caucus, but this had become unpopular. In 1824, most of the Democratic-Republicans in Congress boycotted the caucus. Those that attended backed William H. Crawford for President and Albert Gallatin for Vice President. A convention in Pennsylvania nominated Jackson for President a month later, on March 4.
The result of the election was confused. Besides Jackson and Crawford, John Quincy Adams and House Speaker Henry Clay were also candidates. Jackson received the most popular votes (but not a majority, and four states had no popular ballot). The Electoral votes were split four ways, with Jackson again having a plurality. Since no candidate received a majority, the election was made by the House of Representatives, which chose Adams. Jackson denounced this result as a "corrupt bargain" because Clay gave his support to Adams, who later appointed Clay as Secretary of State. Jackson called for the abolition of the Electoral College in his first annual message to Congress as President. Jackson's defeat burnished his political credentials, however, since many voters believed the "man of the people" had been robbed by the "corrupt aristocrats of the East."
Jackson resigned from the Senate in October 1825, but continued his quest for the Presidency. The Tennessee legislature again nominated Jackson for President. Jackson attracted Vice President John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren, and Thomas Ritchie into his camp (the latter two previous supporters of Crawford). Van Buren, with help from his friends in Philadelphia and Richmond, revived the old Republican Party, gave it a new name, "restored party rivalries," and forged a national organization of durability. The Jackson coalition handily defeated Adams in 1828.¹
Quotes"Without union our independence and liberty would never have been achieved; without union they never can be maintained." -- Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1833
"The Federal Constitution must be obeyed, state rights preserved, our national debt paid, direct taxes and loans avoided, and the Federal Union preserved." -- First Inaugural Address
"One man with courage makes a majority."
"Any man worth his salt will stick up for what he believes right, but it takes a slightly better man to acknowledge instantly and without reservation that he is in error."
"As long as our government is administered for the good of the people, and is regulated by their will; as long as it secures to us the rights of persons and of property, liberty of conscience and of the press, it will be worth defending."
- ¹ Andrew Jackson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Books on Andrew Jackson
- Biography of Andrew Jackson
- Essays on Andrew Jackson and His Administration
- The Hermitage - Home of President Andrew Jackson
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